Find general and specific publications and guidance for mitigating agricultural emissions below.
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2014 | Scholes RJ, Palm CA, Hickman JE
This working paper focuses on the following aims for developing countries, to quantify agriculture's role in reducing GHGs, land cover change and sequestering carbon; identify key agricultural technologies, practices, and policies for climate change mitigation; establish a medium-term target (2035) for mitigation in agriculture; identify the major research questions that need to be answered if agriculture is to be part of the climate change solution for mitigation.
2021 | Lynch J. Cain M, Frame D, Pierrehumbert R
This article urges policymakers, stakeholders, and general society to shift how agricultural GHG emissions are reported and reframe their mitigation to reflect the distinct roles of different GHGs.
2020 | Leahy S, Clark H, Reisinger A
This article examines the current (2020) state of national policy targeting emissions from agriculture. The authors describe the prospects for future action to address agriculture emissions and entry points for mitigation action outside government policies. It is stressed that more must be done to scale mitigation of agriculture emissions to meet the Paris Agreement targets.
2012 | Vermeulen SJ, Campbell BM, Ingram JSI
This review provides an overview of the literature on the relationship between climate change and food systems. It highlights the distribution of climate-related impacts on food security across sectors of global society, and sets out the opportunities and challenges in food systems for integrating mitigation, adaptation, and food security options.
2021 | FAO
This online resource gives a brief overview of adaptation and mitigation in agriculture and provides links to other relevant information.
2014 | Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
This report constitutes the final product of the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the IPCC. It is a comprehensive compilation of assessments dealing with climate change and integrates key findings of the three Working Group contributions to the AR5. Chapter 11 is most relevant to agriculture.
2016 | Wollenberg E, Richards M, Smith P, Havlík P, Obersteiner M, et al.
This paper identifies a target for reducing emissions from agriculture of ~1 GtCO2e yr−1 by 2030 in order to limit warming in 2100 to 2 °C above pre‐industrial levels. It aims to examine how much mitigation is needed in the agriculture sector vs. how much is feasible, and finds that plausible development pathways only provide 21–40% of the mitigation needed. This indicates that more transformative technical and policy options are necessary to reach the identified target for reducing emissions.
2011 | Lal R
This study addresses the potential of carbon sequestration in agricultural soils, the relationship between soil organic carbon (SOC) and food security, and strategies to enhance the SOC pool. It suggests a strategy of adopting conservation tillage, cover cropping, manuring, agroforestry, biochar and other amendments. These technologies can be promoted by payments for ecosystem services.
2017 | Sanderman J, Hengl T, Fiske GJ
This study used a data-driven statistical model and the History Database of the Global Environment v3.2 historic land-use dataset with the aim of producing a credible estimate of soil carbon losses resulting from land use and land cover change. It estimates that agricultural land uses have resulted in the loss of 133 Pg C from the soil and identifies hotspots of soil carbon loss, often associated with major cropping regions and degraded grazing lands, that should be a priority for efforts to restore soil carbon.
2019 | Grubinger V
This general overview of soil organic matter is a publication of the University of Vermont Extension's Vermont Vegetable and Berry Program. It covers the types of soil organic matter and how they affect soil properties.
2014 | Dickie A, Streck C, Roe S, Zurek M, Haupt F, Dolginow A
This report provides a view of the global mitigation potential in 2030, compared to a hypothetical baseline. Recommendations concentrate on mitigation options that reduce the GHG intensity of agriculture by changing production practices without harming yields and shifting demand to lower-GHG intensive products. This is an abridged version of “Strategies for Mitigating Climate Change in Agriculture: Recommendations for Philanthropy.”
2021 | World Bank
The World Bank works to scale sustainable agriculture and has been committed to scaling climate-smart agriculture (CSA) since 2016. This section of their website explains what CSA is, its goals and why the World Bank is investing in it. The page also provides many cases of using CSA to curb GHG emissions while improving food security around the world.
Emissions & LED Options
2019 | Corbeels M, Cardinael R, Naudin K, Guibert H, Torquebiau E
This systematic literature review examined SOC data under agroforestry and conservation agriculture in Africa in the context of the 4 per 1000 Initiative. It found that SOC storage rates under fallows and multistrata systems and full conservation agriculture are higher than 4% per year, but there is a large amount of variability in published data on SOC storage rates. It concludes that there is a potential for SOC storage in agricultural soils of sub-Saharan Africa, but economic support is needed to increase SOC storage rates.
2014 | Johnston AM, Bruulsema TW
This paper presents the 4R Nutrient Stewardship framework, a set of guidelines intended to inform fertilizer Best Management Practices. The 4R Nutrient Stewardship concept involves applying the Right Source of nutrients, at the Right Rate, at the Right Time and in the Right Place.
2014 | Tubiello FN, Salvatore M, Cóndor Golec RD, Ferrara A, Rossi S, et al.
This report provides an analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) at a global and regional level, between 1990-2011. It discusses information made available through the FAOSTAT database and finds increases in agricultural emissions, decreases in deforestation rates, and decreases in the GHG intensity of products between 1990 and 2010. It predicts that, without further mitigation action, emissions may increase by up to 30% by 2050.
2013 | Herrero M, Havlík P, Valin H, Notenbaert A, Rufino MC, et al.
This report presents a high-resolution dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions of global livestock. The dataset highlights the importance of feed efficiency, grasslands, and mixed crop-livestock systems. It aims to enhance understanding of livestock systems and their impacts, and to provide information that will support the development of sustainable solutions for the livestock sector.
2019 | Richards M, Aslihan A, Cavtassi R, Rosenstock T
This research examined the mitigation potential of agricultural practices supported by IFAD's investments with the goal of informing future investments, and identified soil and rice management practices with the largest mitigation potential.
2014 | Havlík P, Valin H, Herrero M, Obersteiner M, Schmid E, et al.
This research article examines the potential of livestock systems to contribute to climate change mitigation and finds that transitions to more productive livestock production systems combined with policies that target emissions from land-use change appear to be the most effective way to reduce emissions while improving food availability.
2016 | Zomer RJ, Neufeldt H, Xu J, Ahrends A, Bossio D, et al.
This paper used remote sensing tree cover data combined with geographically and bioclimatically stratified IPCC Tier 1 default estimates of carbon storage to assess the role of trees on agricultural land in global carbon sequestration. It estimates that the world stores 45.3 PgC in above- and below-ground biomass carbon on agricultural land, and that trees contribute >75% of this biomass carbon. The paper also explores trends in tree cover and biomass carbon storage.
2016 | Carlson K, Gerber JS, Mueller ND, Herrero M, MacDonald GK, et al.
This study developed circa 2000 estimates of the emissions and emission intensities of 172 crops in high spacial detail, focusing this paper on the ten food crops with the highest emissions. It also reports on the impacts of rice paddy management, peatland draining, and nitrogen fertilizer on GHG emissions. It found that global mean production intensity is 0.16 Mg CO2e M kcal−1, but certain cropping practices such as peatland draining and rice production contribute disproportionately to total global emissions.
2007 | Smith P, Martino D, Cai Z, Gwary D, Janzen H, et al.
This paper uses the latest datasets and techniques to estimate the agricultural GHG mitigation potential for 2030, including breakdowns for all global regions and greenhouse gases. It estimates the global technical mitigation potential from agriculture by 2030, considering all gases and excluding fossil fuel offsets from biomass, to be approximately 5500–6000 Mt CO2-eq/yr. It also considers economic mitigation potentials, and identifies prominent practices and technologies for mitigating GHG emissions.
2016 | Herrero M, Henderson B, Havlík P, Thornton PK, Conant RT, et al.
This study reviews the mitigation potential of technical and management interventions, intensification and the associated structural changes of livestock systems, and moderation of demand for livestock products. It found that these options have the technical potential to mitigate a substantial proportion of biogenic emissions from livestock, but their economic mitigation potential may be much smaller. The paper also discusses what research is needed to improve the feasibility and adoption of these mitigation options without negatively impacting rural economies and livelihoods.
2017 | Romasanta RR, Sander BO, Gaihre YK, Alberto MC, Gummert M, et al.
This study measured the emission factors of burning rice straw in the Philippines and used these to calculate the methane and nitrous oxide fluxes during open-field burning of straw under different straw management practices. The quantification of emissions from straw burning in this study can be used to provide data on an important component in the analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from rice.
2019 | Mbow C, Rosenzweig C, Barioni LG, Benton TG, Herrero M, et al.
The report focuses on climate change, the effects it has on land, and the relationship between it and human land use. Chapter 5 assesses the role of adaptation and the potential for combinations of supply-side measures to contribute to climate change mitigation.
2014 | Sander BO, Samson M, Buresh RJ
This study analyzed methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from rice fields under different fallow and straw management practices. It found that methane was the main contributor to GWP, fallow and straw management have a large impact on methane emissions, and soil drying between rice crops in the tropics can reduce the emissions of the next rice crop.
2013 | Montes F, Meinen R, Dell C, Rotz A, Hristov AN, et al.
This review of published data on manure management practices finds that reducing manure storage time and temperature, and capturing and combusting CH4 produced during storage are effective ways to mitigate CH4 emissions. It also finds that urease and nitrification inhibitors are generally effective at reducing N2O emissions from manure application. However, mitigation strategies should be evaluated at the farm level to include all parts of the manure management process.
2010 | Soussana JF, Tallec T, Blanfort V
This review looked at carbon sequestration in grasslands to determine if it has the potential to balance emissions from ruminant production systems. It found that grassland C sequestration has a strong potential to partly mitigate the GHG balance of ruminant production systems; however, this sequestration is vulnerable to disturbance, biodiversity loss and climate change.
2017 | Han Z, Walter MT, Drinkwater LE
This meta-analysis assessed how management practices affect N2O emissions by analyzing 597 pairwise comparisons from 129 papers. It found that N2O emissions were reduced with limited impact on yield in 38% of the comparisons.
2018 | Poore J, Nemecek T
This highly cited article consolidated data on the environmental impacts of ∼38,000 farms producing 40 different agricultural products around the world in a meta-analysis. They compared various types of food production systems and found that the environmental impacts of producing these products were highly variable. They discuss the importance of locally relevant practice options and global diet shifts.
2010 | Macías F, Camps Arbestain M
This review analyses options for increasing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems, specifically those that focus on promoting soil conservation, soil restoration and soil formation. It concludes that understanding the mechanisms through which carbon has been sequestered during periods of high atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration in Earth's past may allow similar mechanisms to be used in the present day.
2019 | Meena RS, Kumar S, Yadav GS
This book chapter provides an overview of soil carbon sequestration in crop production and the factors that impact it. It analyses the carbon sequestration potential of different management practices and identifies a need for location-specific research to determine the best management practices.
2009 | Nair PKR, Nair VD, Kumar BM, Haile SG
This paper attempts to develop a “best-bet estimate”, based on the current level of knowledge and experience, for the soil carbon sequestration (SCS) potential of agroforestry systems (AFS) under different conditions. It supports the claim that AFS can contribute to SCS, and presents indicative ranges of SCS under different AFS in the major agroecological regions of the tropics.
2018 | Feliciano D, Ledo A, Hillier J, Nayak DR
This paper looked at 86 studies on soil and above-ground carbon sequestration in agroforestry systems in order to understand how different factors and agroforestry options impact carbon sequestration. It found that soil carbon sequestration rates are higher in silvopastoral systems and above-ground carbon sequestration rates are higher in improved fallows. It also found that, on average, agroforestry systems in tropical climates provide greater carbon benefits.
2019 | Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
The 2019 Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories is intended to supplement the 2006 IPCC guidelines, fill gaps, and provide an updated scientific basis for supporting the preparation and improvement of national GHG inventories. It is meant to be used in conjunction with the 2006 IPCC guidelines rather than replace them. Volume 4 contains specific information on the Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector, although, other chapters offer guidance for cross-cutting sectors like soil carbon.
2006 | Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
In-depth guidance for compiling country-level national GHG inventories. Volume 4 contains specific information related to the Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector. This guidance is the standard for national GHG inventories. Also, see other volumes of the IPCC 2019 Refinement for cross-cutting guidance.
2016 | Quinney M, Bonilla-Findji O, Jarvis A
The CSA Programming and Indicator Tool helps to examine the scope of a given program or intervention through the three-dimensional lenses of climate-smart agriculture (productivity/income, adaptation and mitigation). The companion document gives a summary and key finding of the CSA Indicators Database.
2018 | MacSween K, Feliciano D
This info note analyzed and compared six online tools for greenhouse gas accounting in order to help potential users understand which tools are the most relevant for certain activities and projects.
2013 | Caffrey KR, Veal MV
The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology can be used identify areas of greatest impact and reduction strategies for agricultural production systems, but there are many factors that increase the complexity of this task. This paper aims to review some of the issues with LCA in order to give perspective to those using the LCA framework in agriculture.
2017 | Liu Z, Liu Y, Shi X, Wang J, Murphy JP, Maghirang R
This study used a meta-analytical approach to investigate the effects of feed digestibility and intake level on methane conversion factor, with the aim of identifying the sources of variations in reported methane conversion factors for dairy and beef cattle. It found that higher energy digestibility of feed and higher energy intake level of cattle generally resulted in a lower percentage of digestible energy intake converted to methane, and its results improved estimation of CH4 conversion factors according to animal husbandry practices.
2012 | O’Brien D, Shalloo L, Patton J, Buckley F, Grainger C, Wallace M
This study evaluated the two main greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification methods, life cycle assessment (LCA) and the IPCC guideline methodology, using a dairy farm GHG model applied to estimate emissions from a seasonal calving pasture-based dairy farm and a total confinement dairy system. It found differences in how the IPCC and LCA methods ranked the emissions of the dairy systems. The LCA method was identified as the preferred approach, but it was indicated that further standardization of the approach is needed.
2021 | Crippa M, Solazzo E, Guizzardi D, Monforti-Ferrario F, Tubiello FN, Lip A
The authors discuss the new global food emissions database they developed, Emissions Database of Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR)-FOOD. EDGAR-FOOD is a response to the lack of detailed data for many countries and provides sectoral contributions to food-system emissions that are necessary for the effective design of mitigation actions.
2016 | Greenhouse Gas Protocol
This table includes the 100-year time horizon global warming potentials (GWP) relative to CO2 from the IPCC Second Assessment Report (SAR), the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), and the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5).
2014 | WRI & WBCSD
This guidance is intended to supplement the GHG Protocol Corporate Standard by addressing accounting and reporting issues specific to the agriculture sector. It aims to support sector-wide adoption of consistent, transparent and cost-effective GHG accounting and reporting practices, enable GHG inventories to be decision-making tools for the better management of GHG emissions from agriculture.
2014 | Shcherbak I, Millar N, Robertson GP
This metaanalysis provides a quantitative comparison of N2O emissions for studies that have used multiple N rates. It finds that a nonlinear emission factor offers a better representation of global emission patters and more power for designing mitigation strategies.
2014 | Green Climate Fund
The mitigation and adaptation performance measurement frameworks (PMFs) were designed to measure the results of the GCF. For adaptation and mitigation the framework lists core indicators. Accredited entities of the GCF submit annual performance reports, reporting progress made towards targets of the core indicators and additional project-level indicators. These reports inform the GCF's annual portfolio performance report.
2021 | Tubiello FN, Rosenzweig C, Conchedda G, Karl K, Gütschow J, et al.
This report discusses a comparative mapping of food system categories and activities to improve the quantification and reporting of food-related emissions in national reporting and identify mitigation opportunities across the global food system.
2014 | Owen JJ, Silver WL
This research review compared compiled data on field‐scale measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms to rates predicted using the IPCC Tier 2 modeling approach. Its findings suggest that current greenhouse gas emission factors tend to underestimate emissions from dairy manure. The results also highlighted liquid manure systems as target areas for mitigation.
2016 | Wilkes A, Bockel L, Grewer U
This document provides guidance for standardized GHG assessment. It is intended to aid in the quantification of GHG mitigation impacts of projects and investments in the AFOLU sector, and to support credible and comparable GHG assessment results.
2014 | UNFCCC
The relevant requirements issued by the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC on the MRV framework are scattered over multiple COP decisions, making it difficult to follow all of the requirements. This handbook provides an overview of the full package of decisions adopted in the international negotiations concerning MRV provisions for developing countries under the UNFCCC (using BURs, ICA, NAMAs, TA, FSV, SBI, etc.). Note that the handbook was published prior to COP21, so it does not cover emerging requirements under the Paris Agreement.
2018 | Minamikawa K, Yamaguchi T, Tokida T, Sudo S, Yagi K
This handbook provides information about MRV geared towards people engaged or interested in the development and implementation of MRV methodology for water management in irrigated rice paddies. It contains information on the development of basic project design, calculation of GHG emission reduction, and requirements for MRV, as well as an introduction to MRV for paddy water management and a list of recommended readings on the subject.
2003 | Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
This report aims to assist countries in the development of national GHG inventories by providing good practice guidance and supplementary methods for estimating, measuring, monitoring and reporting on carbon stock changes and greenhouse gas emissions from land use, land use change and forestry.
2001 | Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
This report aims to support the development of national GHG inventories by providing good practice guidance for producing transparent and complete inventories that are as accurate as possible, and in which uncertainties are reduced as much as is practicable. It is intended to be a reference that complements the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.
2020 | FAO and Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases
The Livestock Activity Data Guidance (L-ADG) provides practical methods for countries to estimate the activity data used to compile livestock GHG inventories using the IPCC Tier 2 approach, with the goal of improving the accuracy of livestock emission estimates in national GHG inventories. This guidance is based on the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories, and its aim is to enable countries to measure and report progress towards their NDCs.
2016 | GRA and CCAFS
Many countries use simple (Tier 1) methods for estimating livestock emissions in their GHG inventories, however, advanced (Tier 2) inventory methods can support climate change and productivity goals and help broaden countries’ policy options. This booklet covers why livestock GHG inventories are important, the benefits of advanced GHG inventories for livestock development, the differences between Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods, how to set up an advanced inventory, an example of a Tier 2 approach for beef production, a case study of Uruguay’s Tier 2 inventory, and where to find additional information.
2019 | Rosenstock TS, Wilkes A, Jallo C, Namoi N, Bulusu M, et al.
This article gives an overview of how agroforestry is handled in national MRV systems under the UNFCCC. It identifies a significant gap between national ambition and national ability to measure and report on agroforestry initiatives and established programs. Institutional, technical and financial challenges prevent comprehensive and transparent inclusion of agroforestry in MRV systems of many non-Annex I countries. This can result in major carbon sinks not being accounted for. Only if agroforestry resources are included in MRV reports will these countries gain access to finance and the support they need. The authors discuss four recommendations to close the gap between ability and ambition.
2017 | Wilkes A, Reisinger A, Wollenberg E, van Dijk S
This report provides an overview of current practices, challenges, and opportunities in the measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of livestock greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and emission reductions by developing countries in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The report describes MRV obligations under the UNFCCC, current practices for national GHG inventories and MRV of mitigation actions, and highlights opportunities for improvement.
2016 | Rosenstock TS, Rufino MC, Butterbach-Bahl K, Wollenberg L, Richards M [Eds.]
This open-source book provides best-practice guidance on MRV in smallholder agriculture, including methodologies for measuring methane emissions from ruminants. It delves into designing a measurement program, data acquisition, and identifying mitigation options. It is has a solution-oriented structure, having leading experts in the field provide clear guidelines on how to deal with the issues raised in the book.
2013 | Milne E, Neufeldt H, Rosenstock T, Smalligan M, Cerri CE, et al
This article considers the current methods available for greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification at a landscape scale and notes that, while a number of models and calculators have been developed recently, they vary in terms of accuracy and usability. It identifies that minimizing uncertainties and maximizing efficiency in landscape scale GHG assessments, especially in landscapes dominated by smallholders in developing countries, requires fitting together a combination of ground sampling, modeling, and using data from census, remote sensing (RS) or other sources.
2018 | Wilkes A, van Dijk S
This is a collection of information and examples of how countries have adopted and continually improved a Tier 2 approach for estimating livestock GHG emissions in national GHG inventories. It is based on a review of the GHG inventory submissions of 63 countries that use a Tier 2 approach and includes methods and approaches adopted by these countries, and links to case studies and further resources.
2011 | Olander LP, Haugen-Kozyra K, with contributions from Del Grosso S, Izaurralde C, Malin D, Paustian K, and Salas W
This paper presents biogeochemical process models as potentially the most effective way to quantify GHG impacts of agricultural management at a large scale. It provides an overview of how these process models could be used by federal and state agencies, voluntary carbon market registries, and companies to quantify GHG emissions in agricultural systems and assess mitigation opportunities and outcomes of management options.
Finance & Incentives
2020 | Inter-American Development Bank
This report includes an explanation of the methodologies for tracking Multilateral Development Banks’ climate finance, and provides an overview of climate finance committed in 2020 by the African Development Bank (AfDB), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the European Investment Bank (EIB), the Inter-American Development Bank Group (IDBG), the World Bank Group (WBG), and the Islamic Development Bank (IsDB).
2018 | World Business Council for Sustainable Development
This report covers the multiple dimensions of the business case for investing in soil health and highlights the opportunities this investment presents. Its aims are to explore how businesses have already begun to invest in soil health, and to identify the key steps for scaling up action and investment in soil health.
2017 | Hanson C, Mitchell P
This report analyzed historical data on food loss and waste reduction efforts conducted by a country, a city, and numerous companies in order to examine the financial impacts of these reduction efforts. It found that the financial benefits of taking action often significantly outweighed the costs and that efforts to reduce food loss and waste could result in benefits for the economy, food security, and the environment. The report also outlines how governments and companies can embark on reduction efforts and identifies additional strategic benefits of these efforts.
2018 | von Unger M, Emmer I
Despite the important role that soils rich in organic carbon have in fighting climate change, soils have largely been missing in carbon markets. This study assesses the specific situation of soil carbon with the goal of exploring to what extent carbon project finance tools can advance the ability of soil carbon to meaningfully contribute to climate change mitigation and provide multiple co-benefits. It also informs the wider role and utility of land sector carbon projects within the framework of the Paris Agreement.
2019 | Gromko D, Abdurasalova G
Food loss and waste (FLW) is estimated to have a carbon footprint of up to 3.49 gigatons of carbon dioxide equivalent (gtCO2e) which represents up to 6–10% of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In Kenya preventable losses in the dairy sector occur as the milk is being transported, in sub-Saharan Africa 10-20% of cereal production is lost post harvest, and in Nigeria up to 86% of tomatoes grown are not consumed. This study examines the business case for reducing FLW in these three supply chains, focusing on preventing milk spoilage in Kenya through coolers and extension services, reducing cereal losses in Tanzania by introducing hermetic storage bags, and reducing tomato losses in Nigeria through using crates for storage and transport.
2015 | UNEP and Climate Action
Capital flows must be shifted, scaled up, optimized and backed by consistent policy in order to respond to climate change through climate finance and carbon markets. This infographic shows statistics about the challenge of mounting a successful financial response to climate change, the solutions, and the current efforts in financing climate action and innovating the financial system.
2021 | Buto O, Galbiati GM, Alekseeva N, Bernoux M
This report gives an overview of climate finance trends in the agriculture and land-use sector at the global and regional scales. The aim is to provide guidance for UN agencies, international finance institutions, national governments, and governmental and non-governmental stakeholders.
2018 | Natural Capital Coalition, Natural Capital Finance Alliance, VBDO
Financial institutions are beginning to recognize the impacts and dependencies they have on natural capital through their banking, investment, and insurance activities. They are also becoming increasingly aware of the opportunities that come from actively considering sustainability or "environmental, social, and governance" factors. The Natural Capital Protocol is a framework for businesses to assess their impacts and dependencies on natural capital, and this supplement to the Protocol aims to make it more applicable and practical for financial institutions by providing sector-specific guidance.
2017 | World Bank
This evaluation assesses the role and contributions of the World Bank Group in Carbon Finance. Its goal is to inform the WBG’s strategic direction and to understand comparative advantages in Carbon Finance through careful analysis.
2020 | CCAFS
This website comprises various documents produced by a 2020 Webinar and Hackathon series, "Enhancing investment in soil health and carbon storage: Frontiers for linking finance and carbon accounting," that was organized by CCAFS, The 4 Per 1000 Initiative, the World Bank and the Nature Conservancy. Participants examined opportunities for action using novel methods and frontier technologies to link technical practices with finance and policy for accurate and cost-efficient SOC accounting. Website resources include background information, recordings of the sessions and presentation, and a brief on insights.
2020 | Falconer A, Chiriac D, Naran B
This report proposes a framework and methodology to measure and categorize climate finance for small-scale agriculture in developing countries and presents the state of climate finance to small-scale agriculture based on the latest data available representing international financial commitments in 2017 and 2018.
2018 | Weber C, Thoma J, Dupre S, Fisher R, Cummis C, Patel S
This paper explores and compares metrics for assessing the climate progress of banks and provides recommendations for choosing metrics, with the aim of informing decisions about how banks should assess and report on the climate progress of their portfolios. It is intended primarily for an audience of commercial and government-associated banks.
2011 | Havemann T
This working paper describes obstacles to financing mitigation in smallholder agricultural systems, and provides recommendations to overcome these; it also emphasizes how smallholder agricultural finances overlap with carbon finance.
2019 | Milan A, Limketkai B, Guarnaschelli S
This paper recommends strategies for addressing market failures to create new sustainable investment opportunities. It highlights a diverse set of policy options and financial solutions, and presents a strategic road map to making the transformation to low-carbon and resilient food systems a reality. This aims to provide clear action-oriented recommendations and act as a call to action for government, donors, corporates, and public and private sector investors.
2018 | Guarnaschelli S, Limketkai B, Vandepu P, Homminga L, Nwachuku AK, Me M
This report provides an overview of challenges and opportunities in sustainable land use (SLU), and presents recommendations for how to best act on opportunities for financing SLU. It covers the revenue generation models, financial structures and blended finance instruments that could be used to capture economic value from SLU and provides a list of high-potential SLU investment opportunities. The report concludes that it is essential to mobilize private capital through blended finance in order to unlock market opportunities for SLU.
2013 | Brasser A, Savenije H
This publication presents findings from a study aimed at providing an understanding of the current state of international forest financing. It presents pathways to improve synergies between initiatives and identifies that, in order to see further results in this sector, coordination, collaboration and coherence between initiatives must be a priority.
2018 | Clark A, Buchner B, Meattle C, Oliver P
This report uses newly published data for 2015 and 2016 to provide updated findings from the Global Landscape of Climate Finance 2017 report. The goal of this is to present the latest and most accurate information possible for policy makers and investment leaders who can use it to make decisions in their work to scale up investment for action on climate change.
2017 | Hof AF, den Elzen MGJ, Admiraal A, Roelfsema M, Gernaat DEHJ, van Vuuren DP
This paper used the IMAGE integrated assessment model to estimate the annual abatement costs of achieving the NDC reduction targets, and the additional costs required for targets to keep global warming below 2 °C. It looked at how costs differed depending on socio-economic assumptions, compared the costs as share of GDP for the ten major emitting economies, and identified that allowing for emission trading could reduce costs significantly.
2012 | Wollenberg E, Higman S, Seeberg-Elverfeldt C, Neely C, Tapio-Biström ML, Neufeldt H
Incentives for adapting practices can unlock the potential for smallholder farmers to contribute significantly to climate change mitigation. This policy brief attempts to determine the most effective incentives. It finds that improved food security, economic benefits and adaptation to climate change are the fundamental incentives that should accompany mitigation in order to maximize smallholder farmers' adoption of mitigation practices. In order to reach larger numbers of farmers, it recommends designing agricultural investment and policy that provides up-front finance and longer term rewards for mitigation practices.
2019 | CCAFS
This CCAFS webpage lists relevant economic analyses and business cases for achieving climate change mitigation in agriculture, with a focus on opportunities in production.
2019 | Harmsen JHM, van Vuuren DP, Nayak DR, Hof AF, Höglund IL, et al.
This paper builds on existing datasets and recent literature on mitigation measures to present a new set of long-term non-CO2 Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) curves, including all major non-CO2 emission sources and mitigation measures across 26 regions.
2021 | World Bank
This report presents the status of main developing carbon pricing initiatives and explores emerging trends in carbon pricing. It finds that more ambitious carbon pricing instruments are emerging but that they are not sufficient to meet the 2˚C Paris Agreement goal.
Planning & Implementation
2019 | Vermeulen SJ, Bossio D, Lehmann J, Luu P, Paustian K, et al.
This paper calls for more efforts to make practitioners, policymakers, and the general public aware of the link between soil carbon and its recognized social outcomes for agricultural productivity and food security, improved water quality, extreme weather mitigation, biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation.
2017 | Sander BO, Wassman R, Palao LK, Nelson A
This article describes how a model for assessing the suitability of alternate wetting and drying (AWD) for land can be used to estimate potential GHG emission savings by mapping the suitability. Country-scale climatic suitability maps for AWD were developed for wet and dry seasons in the Phillimines to illustrate the potential of the model.
2015 | CCAFS
This website presents the climate-smart agriculture (CSA) approach to food security and sustainable development. It aims to help practitioners, researchers and decision-makers working with or interested in CSA get started and guide them through to implementation on the ground. For countries following up on their commitments under the Paris Agreement, CSA Guide is a useful tool to set up mitigation and adaptation initiatives in agriculture. Available in English, French and Spanish.
2017 | Gambhir A, Napp T, Hawkes A, Hoglund-Isaksson L, Winiwarter W, et al.
This paper examined the mitigation of non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs) at a global level in scenarios aimed at meeting long-term temperature goals.
2019 | Hijbeek R, van Loon M, Wollenberg L, White J, K. van Ittersum M.
A series of key messages for climate change mitigation strategies. The first: the use of mineral or organic fertilizer can increase soil carbon sequestration; several studies have found an association between sequestration and achieving carbon-neutral agriculture, but associated GHG emissions are often higher than potential carbon sequestered.
2021 | Bonilla-Findji O, Eitzinger A, Andrieu N
The CCAFS CSA Multilevel Framework manual aims to support future implementation of the CSA Monitoring framework in the field. It reflects all the learnings that came from its piloting and rollout phase (2018-2020) across 10 countries worldwide. The manual provides standard metrics made of a set of Core (uptake and outcome) and Extended indicators.
2020 | UNDP, UNEP, UNEP DTU and WRI
This report provides guidance on the implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and walks countries through the choices they will face in developing implementation strategies. It does so in five general steps: aligning NDC implementation with the Sustainable Development Goals (Chapter 2), preparing for NDC implementation (Chapter 3), financing NDC implementation (Chapter 4), monitoring and reporting progress (Chapter 5), and revising strategies and preparing for subsequent NDCs (Chapter 6).
2013 | Cooper PJM, Cappiello S, Vermeulen SJ, Campbell BM, Zougmoré R, Kinyangi J
This paper identifies sixteen cases of large-scale actions in the agriculture and forestry sectors that have adaptation or mitigation outcomes and draws lessons from the cases. The cases cover policy and strategy development, climate risk management through insurance, weather information services and social protection, and agricultural initiatives that have a strong link to climate change adaptation and mitigation.
2006 | Rao S, Keywan R
This paper used the MESSAGE model to compare a scenario allowing only for CO2 mitigation with a scenario allowing for multigas mitigation in order examine the role of non-CO2 gasses in meeting long-term climate targets. It found that considering non-CO2 mitigation options results in a more effective mitigation portfolio and significantly lower costs especially in the short-term, emphasizing the importance of a diverse mitigation portfolio.
2015 | Gernaat DEHJ, Calvin K, Lucas PL, Luderer G, Otto SAC, et al.
This study conducted an in-depth assessment of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions and their sources in order to support effective climate policy strategies.
2016 | Strohmaier R, Rioux J, Seggel A, Meybeck A, Bernoux M, et al.
This report provides an overview of how agriculture was addressed in the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions and complements existing reports by focusing more closely on the agriculture sectors. Its goal is to identify the needs of countries related to the agriculture sectors in order to inform priorities for international cooperation and support.
2015 | van Dijk S, Tennigkeit T, Wilkes A
This working paper gives an overview of livestock development and emission trends, and the synergies between GHG mitigation and livestock development. It then discusses NAMAs as a mechanism for GHG mitigation, the current state of development, the development process, and financing, with the aim of determining what is needed to best support NAMA development and implementation. It found that the implementation of NAMAs has been slow, and countries sharing knowledge and experiences with NAMAs would reduce the gap between ‘intent’ and actual NAMA implementation.
2020 | Dynarski KA, Bossio DA, Scow KM
This journal article reviews the evolution of knowledge of soil carbon's (C) lifespan, and the terminology used to describe it in scientific and policy settings. The results show how disconnected the science and policy are; recent scientific understanding of soil C is not part of C policy discussions and policymaker's concerns are not addressed by new research. The authors identify priority research areas to address policymaker questions about soil C lifespan, and priority actions to help develop new tools and benchmarks necessary for assessing the effectiveness of current agricultural soil C sequestration practices.
2018 | Pešić R, Ivaniš M, Prodanović, R
This paper analyzes previous experiences with economic instruments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the agriculture and forestry sectors, both in the context of Serbia and internationally. Based on this analysis it proposes ending the use of direct benefits per hectare and livestock unit and instead introducing incentives for energy efficiency, renewable energy, and organic production. It concludes that, in order to reduce emissions, incentives for good forestry and agricultural practices must be included in agricultural policy.
2019 | WRI and UNDP
This publication is intended to guide and support governments through the process of enhancing their NDCs and help them to capture the benefits associated with taking early and ambitious climate action.
2020 | Mulia R, Nguyen DD, NGuyen MP, Steward P, Pham VT, et al.
In this article, the authors estimate the mitigation potential of agroforestry carbon sequestration in Vietnam using a nationwide agroforestry database and carbon data from the available literature. They find that agroforestry has a huge potential to contribute to Vietnam’s 2021–2030 NDC.
2015 | FAO
This tool aims to guide national policymakers, advisers, researchers, private sector and other stakeholders in developing countries to identify, design and implement Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). It includes an overview of climate change and agriculture, an overview of NAMAs, a description of the step-by-step process of developing NAMAs, a look at different aspects of monitoring systems and MRV processes for NAMAs, and information on financing mechanisms and sources.
2016 | Richards MB, Metzel R, Chirinda N, Ly P, Nyamadzawo G, et al.
This research compared calculator predictions against measurements from Africa, Asia, and Latin America and found that there were frequently large differences between GHG calculator estimates and measurements.
2019 | Ross K, Hite K, Waite R, Carter R, Pegorsch L, Damassa T, Gasper R
This paper offers practical examples of how to include actions that benefit climate change adaptation and mitigation in the agriculture sector in an enhanced nationally determined contribution (NDC). It highlights the need for country-specific NDC enhancement and aims to support countries in enhancing their NDCs to include strengthened actions in the agriculture sector.
2019 | Mamun A, Martin W, Tokgoz S
This study explores how to reform current agricultural support measures to help improve environmental, social, and nutritional outcomes. It finds that reform will be challenging but investment in research and development to raise productivity and reduce emission intensities has the potential to benefit agriculture and the environment.
2020 | Searchinger TD, Malin C, Duman P, Badlock D, Glauber J, et al.
This report evaluates agricultural financial support programs and finds that many governments have designed their farm support to be less likely to change what farmers produce. However, only a small portion of programs support environmental objectives and even fewer support climate change mitigation.
2021 | Ciniro C, Seabauer M, Schwartz B, Dittmer K, Wollenberg E.
Moving towards net zero GHG emissions is crucial for avoiding global warming; roughly 1/3 of this responsibility can be transferred to the agricultural sector. Protecting soil organic carbon (SOC) and sequestering carbon in depleted soil can provide almost 15% to the 1/3 target, and can support another 15% from restoration and implementation of the best agronomic practices. Players across food systems have set the target of reducing corporate GHG emissions by setting up SOC sequestration-based targets.
2013 | Gerber PJ, Steinfeld H, Henderson B, Mottet A, Opio C, et al.
This report intends to support a more detailed understanding of emissions from the livestock sector, and to inform policy-making and debate on the role of the livestock sector in climate change. It presents a global assessment of livestock emissions and assesses the mitigation potential of technologies. The report concludes that substantial emission reduction is within reach and multistakeholder action is needed to implement solutions that are equitable and address the sector's complexity.
2013 | Sharma S, Desgain D
This publication aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) concept and explain the underlying decisions of the Conference of the Parties. It is intended to enable national policy makers and other stakeholders to enhance their understanding of NAMAs. It covers the history of how the concept of NAMA has evolved, provides an overview of NAMAs and their scope in the context of the global temperature goal, addresses the concept of measurement, reporting and verification (MRV), and discusses institutional arrangements for supporting NAMAs.
2018 | Sulaiman R, Chuluunbaatar D, Vishnu S
This paper draws on case studies to explore how extension and advisory services (EAS) can be organized to best support the upscaling of climate-smart agriculture (CSA). It aims to determine which EAS functions and actions need to be addressed for the upscaling of CSA, and what type of tools will maximize its adoption and impact.
2019 | CCAFS
The AgMRV Platform for Agriculture is an online platform of tools, approaches, and case studies for MRV of GHG emissions and mitigation actions in the agriculture sector. This is a list of carbon credit methodologies and standards that can be found in the AgMRV Resource Library.
2021 | Verra
The Climate, Community & Biodiversity (CCB) program, developed by Verra, provides standards to evaluate projects addressing climate change, local communities and smallholders support and biodiversity conservation simultaneously. These standards are usually used in conjunction with carbon project methodologies.
2016 | Hanson C, Lipinski B, Robertson K, Dias D, Gavilan I, et al.
The aim of this food loss and waste (FLW) accounting and reporting standard is to help entities be better informed and motivated to minimize FLW. It contains the steps to guide preparation of an FLW inventory and a summary of the standard’s requirements, as well as information on the principles underlying accounting and reporting.
2021 | WRI
The Greenhouse Gas Protocol, developed by the World Resources Institute (WRI), provides standards, general guidance, training, and tools with the aim of helping governments and businesses manage greenhouse gas emissions and design mitigation actions.
2021 | Gold Standard
Developed from Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, Gold Standard provides standards for quantifying and verifying reductions of GHG emissions from projects globally. Gold Standard for the Global Goals sets requirements for designing projects to maximize impact and for measuring and reporting outcomes.
2014 | GHG Protocol
The GHG Protocol Mitigation Goal Standard is primarily intended to help national and subnational governmental agencies design mitigation goals and assess their progress. It supports consistent, transparent and accurate reporting of progress towards mitigation goal achievement and aims to help national governments meet international reporting obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
2021 | NAMA Facility
The NAMA Facility provides finance for the implementation of NAMA Support Projects (NSP). The NAMA Facility has a system for monitoring and evaluation of the facility itself, and monitoring and evaluation is a mandatory component of all NSPs financed by the facility. All NSPs must monitor and report on 5 mandatory monitoring indicators in addition to developing project-specific indicators. In some cases, monitoring and evaluation of NSPs will contribute to building national systems for MRV of low carbon development.
2004 | Plan Vivo
Plan Vivo is a carbon-offset project standard with a focus on smallholders and community land-use projects. It certifies projects that are sustainable in the long-term, improve livelihoods and provide environmental benefits. Certification helps projects receive funding and form partnerships.
2021 | Verra
Verra is an organization that develops global standards and frameworks to direct finance towards addressing environmental issues. They developed the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) which provides standards for quantifying and verifying reductions of GHG emissions from projects globally and allows projects to turn their emission reductions and removals into carbon credits.